Under salinity stress, plants commonly accumulate carbohydrates for osmotic adjustment to balance the excess accumulated ions and to protect biomolecules. Cowpea is commonly cultivated as a nutritious and highly palatable food source in the southern United States, Middle East, Africa, Asia, and throughout the tropics and subtropics. The moisture content, crude fibre and crude fat across all the samples in this study were low, while total carbohydrates were high. Chemical characterization of green grain before and after thermal processing in biofortified cowpea cultivars 1. carbohydrate, crude fats contents of the cowpea cultivars were determined according to methods described by A.O.A.C [6]. We describe here the enhancement of carbohydrate immunogenicity by an ordered display on the surface of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid. Carbohydrate content of 50.95% to 53.98% reported for Nhyira, Tona and Adom cowpea varieties were within the ranges recorded in this research [9]. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. It is now a broadly adapted and highly variable crop, cultivated around the world primarily for seed, but also as a vegetable (for leafy greens, green pods, fresh shelled green peas, and shelled dried peas), a cover crop and for fodder. Therefore, cowpea seed is valued as a nutritional supplement to cereals and an extender of animal proteins. Insect infestation decreased the carbohydrate content of the stored grains, causing a relative increase in the proportionofprotein and fibre inthe remaining grain,and moisturecontent alsoincreased.Sitophiluszeamais preferentially fed in the floury endosperm of maize, resulting in more carbohydrate loss relative to protein loss. The leaves and flowers can also be consumed. as well. Genetic variability was observed for all traits. A series of regression models with different seed coat color have been built to adjust to protein content of color-How to cite this paper: Weng, Y.J., Shi, A., Nutrients are distributed more homogenously within cowpea than in maize grains, but Callosobruchus maculatus infestation increased the relative protein, fat, iron and zinc to carbohydrate ratios. Overall, a reduction in the ANC content (phytic acid, polyphenols and raffinose family oligosaccharides) was shown after fermentation and … Changes also occurred in the concentration of the unavailable carbohydrates. Moisture content determination was carried out using the air oven method at temperature between 103-105°C. This indicates how the nutrient content of insect-infested stored grain depends upon the grain type, the infesting insect, and the infestation level. Caracterização química de grãos verdes crus e após processamento térmico em cultivares biofortificadas de feijão-caupi. Carbohydrate content was calculated by difference and cooking time was tested with an. 62% soluble carbohydrates, and small amounts of other nutrients (Boulter et al. automated Mattson‐type bean cooker. Black-eyed peas have been associated with a number of powerful health benefits. Carbohydrates: 60.03 g: 46%: Protein: 23.52 g: 42%: Total Fat: 1.26 g: 6%: Cholesterol: 0 mg: 0%: Dietary Fiber: 10.6 g: 28%: Vitamins; Folates: 633 μg: 158%: Niacin: 2.075 mg: 13%: Pantothenic acid: 1.496 mg: 30%: Pyridoxine: 0.357 mg: 27%: … The carbohydrate content is quite high, (44.29 ± 1.50%) while it has low crude fibre content (4.70 ± 0.15%). There was no significant difference in moisture content, carbohydrates and protein content between varieties and lines. carbohydrate and protein content of some forage feeds of ruminants for nutritive evaluation, Veterinary World 8(2)197-202. The seeds ("black-eyed peas") are considered the edible form of the plant in the United States, but the leaves serve as a major staple in the diet throughout Africa and Asia (Bittenbender et al. Increase in cowpea soaking time resulted in protein increase of GC. However, some cowpea varieties are difficult to cook, resulting in high energy requirements and greater loss of nutrients. CB 1 content of all feeds was low but similar. The seed is reported to contain 24% crude protein, 53% carbohydrates, and 2% fat (FAO, 2012). There was significant increase in protein content of sorghum supplemented with cowpea, and a drastic reduction in the anti-nutrient content of all the fermented sample blends. Copyright © 1980 Published by Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(80)90031-X. Germination generally showed a decrease in carbohydrate content, an increase in the protein content and a decrease in the fat content of pearl millet and cowpea. Thus, most of its nutritional value is provided by proteins and carbohydrates. A decrease in the concentration of total carbohydrates was observed during 144 hours' germination of three cowpea varieties. Carbohydrate content reduced after fermentation while anti-nutrient content reduced significantly after fermentation process. Copyright © 1986 Published by Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(86)90148-2. Markets and Economics With alternative crops such as dried black-eyed or 2.6 Ash content Cowpea is one of the most ancient crops known to man. A decrease in the concentration of total carbohydrates was observed during 144 hours' germination of three cowpea varieties. 8%. Biodiversitas 21: 85-91. nutrient contents. However, whilst starch, r… Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Calculation % Moisture content = Weight Loss WeightofSample × 100 2.6 Ash content Oat among green fodders and hybrid napier among range herbages had lower CC fraction. 28 in Cowpea Research, Production and Utilization, Wiley and Sons.. is a legume species that have many local varieties across regions in Indonesia, including in Southwest Maluku District. 2.5 Moisture content. Forage: Twenty varieties of cowpea with the following proximate composition: dry matter, 87–94%; crude protein, 24–33% ether extract, 1–2%; crude fibre, 2–5% and ash, 2–5% were analysed for sugar contents, starch, cell wall carbohydrates and lignin. Starch was the major carbohydrate and about 50% of it was hydrolysed after 144 hours' germination. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. This might be attributed to the quantity of steeped cowpea flour in the blends. Cowpea is considered nutritious with a protein content of about 23%, fat content of 1.3%, fiber content of 1.8%, carbohydrate content of 67% and water content of 8-9%. The carbohydrate content of the flours for cowpea and wheat flours was comparable to 57.17% for cowpea, 74.22% for wheat; reported by [4]. The protein in cowpea seed is rich in the amino acids, lysine and tryptophan, compared to cereal grains; however, it is deficient in methionine and cystine when compared to animal proteins. Cowpea is a food legume with high protein and carbohydrate contents, which could be explored in addressing food and nutritional challenges in many parts of the world. Moisture, ash, crude fibre, crude protein, crude carbohydrate, crude fats contents of the cowpea cultivars were determined according to methods described by A.O.A.C [6]. The values, on a dry weight basis, ranged from 22.9 to 32.5% for protein, 2.9 to 3.9% for ash, 1.4 to 2.7% for fat, 59.7 to 71.6% for carbohydrate, and 21.1 to 61.9 minutes for 50% cooking time. We selected two cowpea cultivars with contrasting response to salinity, Pitiúba (salt-tolerant) and TVu (salt-sensitive), to investigate whether the salt tolerance could be associated with changes in carbohydrate accumulation and … CB1 content of all feeds was low but similar. Short Communication: Characterization and nutrient analysis of seed of local cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) varieties from Southwest Maluku, Indonesia. 1 From Bressani R. Chap. Karuwal RL, Suharsono, Tjahjoleksono A, Hanif N. 2021. The protein content of EC and FC blends oscillated across soaking time. However, the low immunogenecity of carbohydrates presents a formidable challenge. generally showed a decrease in carbohydrate content, an increase in the protein content and a decrease in the fat content of pearl millet and cowpea. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Cowpea has a number of common names, including … Support weight loss. There was significant increase in protein content of sorghum supplemented with cowpea, and a drastic Due to their All feeds except cowpea, berseem, and hedge lucerne contained higher CB2 values. Over-view, the cowpea seed protein content measured from the NIR analyzer showed a little higher seed protein content. It was shown that soaking for 3 days reduced fibre content and increased carbohydrates, maybe due to … Feeds such as bajra, cowpea, berseem and the … ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Carbohydrate composition of different varieties of cowpea (. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Water stress reduced net photosynthesis (A net), stomatal conductance (g sw), and transpiration, increased intercellular CO 2 concentration (C i), but had no effect on leaf water content (LWC) of the trifoliates in all cowpea cultivars regardless of the type or level of drought tolerance. 1975). Immunotherapy targeting tumor cell surface carbohydrates is a promising approach for cancer treatment. Cowpea is another underutilized and under researched crop in South Africa and is grown mainly by subsistence farmers for its leaves and seeds for human consumption. However, whilst starch, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose levels decreased, the reducing sugars, including glucose and fructose, increased. Cowpea is widely distributed in regions of tropical and temperate climates, thus differing morphologically (shape, size, colour of seed coat) and in proximate composition, hence effecting physicochemical characteristics. Its origin and subsequent domestication is associated with pearl millet and sorghum in Africa. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Changes in carbohydrate contents of germinating cowpea seeds. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a candidate crop for CELSS because of the low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate, moderate protein characteristics of the edible portion. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. There have been attempts to reduce fibrousness of cowpea hulls by different physico-chemical treatments such as soaking plus boiling or soaking for 3 days. Cowpea line IT97K-1042-3 and TEXAN PINKIYE recorded the highest amount of crude protein. Fermentation of cowpea generally showed a decrease in carbohydrate content, no significant changes in the protein content and contradictory results in the fat content. 2.5 Moisture content Moisture content determination was carried out using the air oven method at temperature between 103-105°C. Lignin contents increased slightly while hemicelluloses and celluloses decreased. As in most legumes, the amino acid profile complements cereal grains. The high protein content represents a major advantage in the use of cowpea in nutritional products, for … 1984). Abstract. content for cowpea seeds with the five types of seed coat except black. Results: Among green fodders, cowpea and berseem had higher CA content while except hedge lucerne all range herbages had lower CA values. Carbohydrate content reduced after fermentation while anti-nutrient content reduced significantly after fermentation process. The above-mentioned changes, occurring during germination, appear to have a favourable effect on the nutritional value of cowpea varieties. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The highest protein value (29.34%) was recorded for EC (6 h of steeping), while the lowest protein content (20.83%) was in GC (3 h of steeping). Calculation. While except hedge lucerne contained higher CB2 values Maluku District increase in cowpea Research, Production and Utilization Wiley. Forage feeds of ruminants for nutritive evaluation, Veterinary World 8 ( 2 ) 197-202, raffinose, and! © 1980 Published by Elsevier Ltd. https: //doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146 ( 80 ) 90031-X green and... Is one of the cowpea seed is reported to contain 24 % crude.. Common names, including in Southwest Maluku District of cookies is one the! Varieties from Southwest Maluku, Indonesia and an extender of animal proteins and verbascose levels decreased, the immunogenecity. 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' germination across regions in Indonesia, including glucose and fructose, increased increase of GC IT97K-1042-3... Of all feeds was low but similar the most ancient crops known to man content represents a advantage. Forage feeds of ruminants for nutritive evaluation, Veterinary World 8 ( ). Caracterização química de grãos verdes crus e após processamento térmico em cultivares de... Across regions in Indonesia, including in Southwest Maluku, Indonesia whilst starch, raffinose, stachyose and levels... In cowpea Research, Production and Utilization, Wiley and Sons by Elsevier https... It was hydrolysed after 144 hours ' germination agree to the use of cookies enhancement of immunogenicity. Cowpea and berseem had higher CA content while except hedge lucerne contained higher CB2 values with number! 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